Ionic charge, electron negativity and the periodic table

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Created April 2020, Offline version here
Video by Paul Anderson, also on his website Bozeman Science.

    The periodic table can show a range of trends, such as ionization energies and atomic radii. In fact, the trends on the periodic table, which are known as , can be derived from the placement of electrons, or the , inside an atom. The Aufbau principle can help determine the electron configuration of an atom. As per the Aufbau principle, electrons build from to energy levels. Energy levels can be broken down into different energy shells and within those energy levels, there are four energy subshells, known as s, p, d, and f. Electrons in the same have the same and vice versa. Generally, as we go across the periodic table, ionization energy , and it becomes harder to pull away electrons from the atom. The ionization energy is the energy required of an atom to pull electrons away from another atom. For example, Bromine will have a ionization energy than Helium. As we increase the atomic number, we increase the number of . This causes the electrons to be pulled the center of an atom because the opposite charges attract more efficiently when closer to each other. As the atomic number increases, so does the positive charge of the atom. Since the increasing positive charge brings electrons closer to the nucleus, this results in the atomic radius decreasing. However, the atomic radii as you go down a group because the number of energy levels increases. The electronegativity of an atom determines how strongly an atom can pull away from another atom. In other words, the greater the electronegativity of an atom, the better chances it has to pull it from another atom. The Electronegativity of an atom determines its ability to attract an electron, while the ionization energy is the energy needed to remove an electron from another atom. The trend for electronegativity and ionization energy are . The Noble Gases are found in group 8. These elements have a full inner electron subshell. For this reason, these elements are stable than any other elements that are found on the periodic table. The Noble Gases can help determine the typical ionic charges of nearby elements. For example, in order to gain stability like the Noble gases that have a full outer shell, the need to lose one electron. Therefore, this family of atoms has an ionic charge of . The position of atoms relative to the stable Noble Gases can help determine their typical ionic charge. Generally, elements, such as have an ionic charge of +2, while elements such as Sulfur and Oxygen have an ionic charge of -2. An atom with the electron configuration of [Kr]4d105s25p would be in the same family as and has an opposite charge than the alkali metals. Elements in the same family have similar properties and this phenomenon became a fundamental tool in the world of material design. There are various types of feldspars that are used for creating ceramics and glass. The feldspar that will give the closest type of ceramic and glass to a Sodium feldspar, (NaAlSi3O8) is a . Electronegativity increases across periods and decreases down groups. For example, it is highly likely an element with an electron configuration of will pull away electrons from an element with an electron configuration of . Elements display periodicity in terms of trends when organized according to increasing atomic numbers on the periodic table. The general trends in the periodic table, such as electronegativity, atomic radius, and ionization energy can all be best explained with .