The Central Dogma and transcription and translation

Created March 2020, Offline version here
Video by Dillon Brantley, also on his YouTube channel.

    The central dogma of biology states that genetic information flows from to to . Genetic information is transferred to RNA through the process known as . This process is performed by an enzyme called , which synthesizes a(n) strand complementary to the template strand in a 5’ to 3’ direction, based on the orientation of the sugar. Instead of using thymine bases, uses when creating RNA transcripts. In prokaryotic cells, there is no distinction between and transcripts.
In eukaryotic cells, pre-mRNA is processed by the to remove and add a(n) to assist translation and a poly-A tail to increase . Many mRNA transcripts can be produced from a single pre-mRNA in order to increase mRNA .
    In eukaryotes, transcription occurs in the , and the resulting mRNA moves through to be translated to protein by .
    are groups of 3 nucleotides on an mRNA transcript that correspond to a(n) determined by the genetic code. are groups of 3 nucleotides found on a tRNA molecule.
Initiation of translation brings the of the ribosome, mRNA and together. during translation occurs when amino acids are added to the growing polypeptide chain.
    of translation occurs when the protein release factor recognizes a codon.