Shells, subshells and orbitals

Created April 2020, Offline version here
Video by Paul Andersen. Visit his website: Bozeman Science.


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1. The direction of the spin of two electrons in the same orbital.
2. They are organized in shells, subshells and orbitals within an atom.
3. The ionization energy of sodium relative to that for neon.
4. A synonym for energy level of electrons in an atom.
5. The effect between the nucleus and the valence electrons.
6. Two words that describe the distribution of electrons in an atom or ion.
7. They have a positive charge and are found in the nucleus of an atom.
8. Where the core atoms can be found in an atom.
9. Shells consist of this.
10. A name for the type of electrons occurring in the highest energy level of an atom.
11. This happens between two electrons in the same orbital and leads to a lower ionization energy for oxygen than expected.
12. The maximum possible number of electrons in any orbital.
13. The ionization energy of helium relative to that for hydrogen.
14. This is where the positive charge in an atom resides.
15. This generally happens with the ionization energy when moving from left to right in a period.
16. This element will have a higher ionization energy than boron when increasing the positive charge in the nucleus with one
17. The law that calculates the force between a valence electron and the nucleus of an atom.
18. The effect which causes the ionization energy of lithium to be lower than that for helium.
19. Subshells consist of this.
20. The quantity used to measure the energy needed to remove an electron from an atom.